Monday, March 16, 2020

International relations theories debate

International relations theories debate States remain the core units in the study of international theories (IR), practices, and disciplines. The position of the state as the core unit of this study is not likely to change in the near future. When studying IR, state policy is the subject of several analyses. For instance, it is the state’s decision to go to war, to invoke trade restrictions, and to enact environmental treaties. In addition, it is the decision of the state to enter into any international agreements and to decide whether or not to abide to the stipulations that are spelt out by such agreements.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on International relations theories debate specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Even IR theories that do not focus on the importance of state will often touch on the relevance of a state’s practice. The study of IR concerns itself with the actions of the state, and the effects these actions have towards other sta tes. States are often analyzed as common units when considering IR theories and practices. This essay argues that it can be assumed that formulation of theories in the study of IR necessitates the consideration of the state as a unitary actor that seeks to maximize its power or wealth. All theories, be they in science, mathematics, psychology, and physics are aimed at simplifying complex concepts by making them explainable. Different theories can be grouped depending on the similarities of their assumptions. Any theory can only be confirmed after it has been tested. Therefore, theories will take a long time before they are truly accepted in scholarly circles. Several theories of IR assume that states are the main elements in global politics. Theories that put states in the middle of international relations do not ignore the other elements that formulate IR. The rationale behind states being the main actors in IR theories is that it is almost impossible to propose a theory without ha ving examined the singularity of the state. By focusing on the analysis of the state as a single unit, international relations scholars usually hope to understand the mechanisms behind international politics. The advantages of using this approach often outweigh the disadvantages. The opponents of this approach argue that it is empirically beneficial to consider a wide range of factors and not only the state. In addition, it is argued that considering more factors enhances the research on international relations. The debate on this aspect pits those who favor empirical advantage versus those who favor theoretical accuracy. In this case, realist theorists are pitted against non-realist theorists such as neoconservatives and idealists. However, focus on the simplicity of IR theories is more beneficial because theories are meant to simplify concepts as opposed to making them more complex using empirics. The structure of realism favors this concept. Another reason why it is important to consider states as unitary actors is because it can be assumed that the needs of the states represent the needs of a particular society. According to realist theorists, the state is a homogenous unit with homogeneous needs.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Therefore, the state and its politics being unitary, eliminates the need for sorting out various elements of domestic countries. In addition, the state is considered as a single entity with a uniform political path. Realist theories are formulated under the assumption that national interest coincides with a state’s power. On the other hand, non-realist theories operate under the assumption that national interest coincides with a state’s survival. In addition, non-realist theories assume that the state seeks to ensure its survival and the pursuit of power is only relevant when a state’s sur vival is at stake. According to realists, a state’s need to seek power stems from human nature. Consequently, this human nature helps in the definition and interpretation of a state’s actions. Both power and survival occur at the state’s political level, and this is further validation of the realists’ argument. By considering the state and its actions as a central unit, it is possible to analyze several theories that touch on international politics. Most of the theories that oppose realist theories usually forward a more context-specific item of national-interest. For instance, there is a constructivist IR theory that has nuclear war avoidance as its main item of interest. Therefore, such a theory claims that the national-interest of any state and its citizens is to avoid a nuclear war. However, realists can argue that this item is covered in the pursuit of military and economic power that is specified by realist theories. Most of the specific items that are focused on by non-realist theories relate directly to the state. Considering liberal and constructivist theories cover issues that fall under the state’s jurisdiction, realists conclude that it is simpler to analyze the state as a unitary actor. States are sovereign units that have unlimited authority over the areas they cover and the inhabitants of those regions according to liberalist and realist theorists. Any decision that is made by the state applies to all citizens that live in that state. For instance, if the state decides to increase the import tax, all the citizens will feel the effects of this decision. The laws that are followed by citizens all around the world are dependent on the jurisdiction of particular states. Even international laws are dependent on the states’ association with other states. The relationship between states is the fundamental principle in IR. Therefore, it is hard to analyze IR practices without considering the state as a unitary a ctor. The concepts of states, their jurisdictions, their relationships with other states, and their internal hierarchy are the main argument in neorealist theories. These concepts also necessitate the consideration of states as unitary actors. The proponents of theories that dispute the position of states as unitary actors argue that sovereignty of these units is relative. According to this school of thought, the sovereignty of any state tends to rest on another unit such as a monarch, a parliament, or a group of citizens. These units ‘lend’ their sovereignty to states.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on International relations theories debate specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Therefore, the argument about states being the units that regulate citizens’ actions is flawed. The opposing group argues that it is hard to assign sovereignty to a state without considering the other units of power within a st ate. The examples given to dispute states’ sovereignty include states whose policies are made by few elite individuals, democracies with power-wielding parliaments, and states that are ruled by a dictator. Even though the actual policy makers may vary, the state is still the symbolic bearer of power. The technicalities that undermine the sovereignty of states are not enough reasons to dispute the position of states as unitary actors. The reason for this is because the units of power that are defined by non-realists are not recognizable to other states. For instance, the American congress cannot get into talks with the Queen of England even though the two are units of power within their states. The state’s responsibility of speaking and acting on behalf of its citizens enhances its unitary actor status. Other actors such as non-governmental organizations lack this aspect. For example, a non-governmental organization cannot speak or act on behalf of its members. Moreover , the actions of such an organization do not necessarily bind their members. In addition, most of the other organizations attract membership voluntarily. On the other hand, membership to states is involuntary and the actions of states are binding to their citizens. These unique abilities underline the central nature of states. The importance of state actors over other types of actors is the subject of their consideration as units of analysis when dealing with major IR theories. There is a lot of criticism toward theories that are centralized on states being unitary actors. Several schools of thought dispute the notion that the only way to analyze IR theories and practices is by using the state-centric perspective. Several theories have been forwarded as rebuttals to state-centric theories. Some idealist, liberalist, and neoconservative theorists dispute the legitimacy of the concept of ‘national interest’. The concept of the state being a single entity that represents t he interests of all citizens is disputed by idealists. It is argued that the concept of national interest is ambiguous and self centered in nature. Considering the state as a single unit is a misleading concept according to opponents of this concept. The idea that one interest might apply to all citizens in a particular state is often criticized. This critique is based on the fact that in a single state, several people are affected by the same issue differently. For instance, global warming is considered a national interest in most states across the world. The interests of the nation are said to represent the interests of its citizens. However, global warming does not affect all citizens in the same way. For example, global warming has made some areas warmer and therefore more suitable for farming while other areas are losing productive land as a result of its effects. This example successfully disputes the concept of national interest.Advertising Looking for essay on international relations? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Realist theories are formulated with the concept of national interest as their central agenda. Non-realist theories are formulated under the assumption that most of the so-called national interests do not cover the interests of every citizen. Therefore, non-realist theories make use of special interest groups within a unitary state to better define the needs of different people within the society. Subdividing a society into several autonomous groups is said to eliminate the bias that is usually achieved by treating the state as a unitary player. However, this rebuttal fails to put into consideration some important points. First, even though states are not essentially homogeneous, their actions apply to all citizens irrespective of their sub-divisions. The other important thing to put into consideration is that refuting the legitimacy of national interest does not necessarily prove that a state’s authority is not important. Reiterating the necessity to consider states as unita ry actors in the study of IR does mean that all other approaches are false. However, theories that focus on this approach have made a better argument as opposed to theories that do not necessarily agree with this approach. Theorists that favor consideration of states as unitary actors use the central nature of the state to study patterns in IR. This approach is also used to help states address their challenges and those of their citizens. In future, states are likely to remain as the central subjects in the study of international relations. This is in spite of the fact that some of the lesser actors are gaining importance in the international political arena. IR theories are not constant and they are subject to change. Introduction to the speech The importance of states in the study of IR theories cannot be ignored. States are considered as important units when it comes to defining IR practices. This has often been the trend in the study of IR theories and practices. The success of this trend has seen it survive a lot of criticism from some IR theorists while it continues to enjoy support from others. Today, our team will prove that IR study is based on the assumption that for the purpose of creating any IR theories, states should be considered as rational unitary actors that seek to maximize their power. I will now open the floor to our first proponent. Conclusion to the Speech The position of the state in the study of IR cannot be ignored. The state is the unit around which several IR theories are formulated. Several of these theories support the consideration of the state as the central element in IR study. The support accorded to this approach is based on the fact that it simplifies IR study. It is also likely that this approach will continue to be used by IR scholars even in future.

Saturday, February 29, 2020

Acid in Soda

Each soda was titrated using one of the two experimental methods. These methods are the traditional titration and the modern titration. Carbonic acid was already removed from the soda by boiling it. Both of the two different titration methods use the same basic set up. Firstly, the buret must be cleaned thoroughly with tap water. While cleaning the buret, it is also checked to make sure there are no leaks. The ring stand is then set up with a buret clamp and the cleaned buret placed in it. Then the buret is filled with 5-10mL of sodium hydroxide, M . 0466 NaOH, three times and emptied after each time to completely rinse the buret. The buret is now filled will NaOH until it reads at the 0. 00mL mark on the buret. The initial volume of NaOH in the buret is then recorded into lab books for future reference. The soda must now be readied for titration. Both sodas require the same set up. The correct amount of soda, depending on which titration, is poured into a 100mL graduated cylinder. This measurement had to be within 5% deviation of the given value to be legitimate. Next, after the initial volume of the soda was recorded for future calculations, distilled water was added up to the 100mL mark on the cylinder. The mixed solution was then put into a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. That is as far as the similarities between the two titration methods go. In order to prepare the first soda for the traditional titration, five drops of phenolphthalein dye are added to the soda water solution in the flask. Next, the tip of the buret was placed over top of the soda solution. NaOH solution was added at approximately 2mL increments. The dye will create a pink color that disappears when mixed. When the titration did not disappear, NaOH was no longer added. The final volume of NaOH in the buret was recorded. 4mL was then subtracted from this number and the number received from that was the volume of NaOH that was quickly added each time for a more accurate titration. Another trial was then prepared by refilling the buret to 0. 00mL and the flask was rinsed out. A new soda solution was added to the flask by following the previous instructions. This time the volume of NaOH that could be quickly added was added to the soda solution. After this volume was added, drops of NaOH were then added to the solution continuously until the solution once again remained pink. The volume of NaOH was recorded in the notebook. This procedure for the traditional and accurate titration was repeated three additional times for a total of four accurate titrations. All data was recorded. The ratio of NaOH to citric acid was then calculated in the notebook for each of the four accurate titrations. Using the volume of NaOH and the molarity of NaOH, the number of moles was found. Then using the stoichiometry of the reaction, the number of moles of citric acid was found for each trial. The mean and standard deviation was then calculated for the molarity of citric acid. The modern titration used a pH electrode and the LabQuest device to record accurate titrations. After the LabQuest device was set up correctly, the soda and the NaOH were prepared as in the traditional titration experiment except the soda was placed in a beaker instead of a flask. Using a utility clamp and a stand, the pH electrode was suspended just above the bottom of the beaker. Then the magnetic stir bar was added to stir the soda solution evenly. For these titrations the volume of the NaOH was entered into the LabQuest device during the titration. NaOH was added to the solution until the pH reached 6. 0. NaOH was then added very carefully, drops at a time, until the pH reached about 10. 0. During the titration, the volume of NaOH was entered into the LabQuest device every time the pH level raised 0. 2 pH. The device stores the entered data and records it on a chart. This process of titration was repeated two more times for a total of three accurate titrations. The data stored in the device was then transferred to a computer and saved. The charts and data collected can be found on the last page. The volume of NaOH used to reach the equivalence point was calculated for each of the three titrations. The equivalence point was found graphically. Using the volume of NaOH and the molarity of NaOH, the moles of NaOH were calculated. Using the volume of the soda used, the molarity of citric acid was found. Then the mean and standard deviation of the molarity of citric acid was calculated. Results: In the traditional titration, the recorded data is shown in the following chart: Table 1: Volume of soda| Volume of NaOH| RatioNaOH:soda| MolesNaOH| MolesCitric acid| MolarityCitric acid| Titration1| 40. 00mL| 19. 00mL| . 475| 8. 85* 10^-4| 2. 95* 10^-4| 7. 375*10^-3| Titration2| 40. 00mL| 19. 00mL| . 466| 8. 85* 10^-4| 2. 95* 10^-4| 7. 23*10^-3| Titration3| 40. 80mL| 19. 00mL| . 469| 8. 85* 10^-4| 2. 95* 10^-4| 7. 28*10^-3| Titration4| 40. 10mL| 19. 02mL | . 474| 8. 86* 10^-4| 2. 95* 10^-4| 7. 36*10^-3| From the data in Table 1, the mean and standard deviation was calculated for the molarity of citric acid: Mean molarity of citric acid: 7. 31*10^-3 Standard Deviation: 6. 837*10^-5 In the modern titration, the recorded data is shown for the three trials in the tables below: Table 2: Table 3:Table 4: The data in tables 2-4 was entered separately into three different graphs shown below: Graph 1: Trial 1 Graph 1b: Derivative of graph 1 shown Graph 2: Trail 2 Graph 3: Trial 3 From tables 2-4 and analyzing graphs 1-3, the volume of NaOH used to reach the Equivalence point was calculated. Trial 1: 11. 86mL Trial 2: 11. 28mL Trial 3: 11. 40mL Using the volume of NaOH and the concentration of NaOH (. 0466M) the molarity of NaOH was calculated to four significant figures: Trial 1: 5. 527*10^-4 Trial 2: 5. 257*10^-4 Trial 3: 5. 312*10^-4 Using the stoichiometry of the reaction between citric acid and sodium hydroxide, the moles of citric acid was found to four significant figures: Trial 1: 1. 842*10^-4 Trial 2: 1. 752*10^-4 Trial 3: 1. 771*10^-4 From the moles of citric acid, the molarity was then calculated to four significant figures: Trial 1: 9. 211*10^-3 Trial 2: 8. 761*10^-3 Trial 3: 8. 854*10^-3 The mean and standard deviation were then calculated for the moles of citric acid in the sample of soda used again to four significant figures: Mean: 8. 942*10^-3 Standard Deviation: 2. 376*10^-4 Acid in Soda Each soda was titrated using one of the two experimental methods. These methods are the traditional titration and the modern titration. Carbonic acid was already removed from the soda by boiling it. Both of the two different titration methods use the same basic set up. Firstly, the buret must be cleaned thoroughly with tap water. While cleaning the buret, it is also checked to make sure there are no leaks. The ring stand is then set up with a buret clamp and the cleaned buret placed in it. Then the buret is filled with 5-10mL of sodium hydroxide, M . 0466 NaOH, three times and emptied after each time to completely rinse the buret. The buret is now filled will NaOH until it reads at the 0. 00mL mark on the buret. The initial volume of NaOH in the buret is then recorded into lab books for future reference. The soda must now be readied for titration. Both sodas require the same set up. The correct amount of soda, depending on which titration, is poured into a 100mL graduated cylinder. This measurement had to be within 5% deviation of the given value to be legitimate. Next, after the initial volume of the soda was recorded for future calculations, distilled water was added up to the 100mL mark on the cylinder. The mixed solution was then put into a 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask. That is as far as the similarities between the two titration methods go. In order to prepare the first soda for the traditional titration, five drops of phenolphthalein dye are added to the soda water solution in the flask. Next, the tip of the buret was placed over top of the soda solution. NaOH solution was added at approximately 2mL increments. The dye will create a pink color that disappears when mixed. When the titration did not disappear, NaOH was no longer added. The final volume of NaOH in the buret was recorded. 4mL was then subtracted from this number and the number received from that was the volume of NaOH that was quickly added each time for a more accurate titration. Another trial was then prepared by refilling the buret to 0. 00mL and the flask was rinsed out. A new soda solution was added to the flask by following the previous instructions. This time the volume of NaOH that could be quickly added was added to the soda solution. After this volume was added, drops of NaOH were then added to the solution continuously until the solution once again remained pink. The volume of NaOH was recorded in the notebook. This procedure for the traditional and accurate titration was repeated three additional times for a total of four accurate titrations. All data was recorded. The ratio of NaOH to citric acid was then calculated in the notebook for each of the four accurate titrations. Using the volume of NaOH and the molarity of NaOH, the number of moles was found. Then using the stoichiometry of the reaction, the number of moles of citric acid was found for each trial. The mean and standard deviation was then calculated for the molarity of citric acid. The modern titration used a pH electrode and the LabQuest device to record accurate titrations. After the LabQuest device was set up correctly, the soda and the NaOH were prepared as in the traditional titration experiment except the soda was placed in a beaker instead of a flask. Using a utility clamp and a stand, the pH electrode was suspended just above the bottom of the beaker. Then the magnetic stir bar was added to stir the soda solution evenly. For these titrations the volume of the NaOH was entered into the LabQuest device during the titration. NaOH was added to the solution until the pH reached 6. 0. NaOH was then added very carefully, drops at a time, until the pH reached about 10. 0. During the titration, the volume of NaOH was entered into the LabQuest device every time the pH level raised 0. 2 pH. The device stores the entered data and records it on a chart. This process of titration was repeated two more times for a total of three accurate titrations. The data stored in the device was then transferred to a computer and saved. The charts and data collected can be found on the last page. The volume of NaOH used to reach the equivalence point was calculated for each of the three titrations. The equivalence point was found graphically. Using the volume of NaOH and the molarity of NaOH, the moles of NaOH were calculated. Using the volume of the soda used, the molarity of citric acid was found. Then the mean and standard deviation of the molarity of citric acid was calculated. Results: In the traditional titration, the recorded data is shown in the following chart: Table 1: Volume of soda| Volume of NaOH| RatioNaOH:soda| MolesNaOH| MolesCitric acid| MolarityCitric acid| Titration1| 40. 00mL| 19. 00mL| . 475| 8. 85* 10^-4| 2. 95* 10^-4| 7. 375*10^-3| Titration2| 40. 00mL| 19. 00mL| . 466| 8. 85* 10^-4| 2. 95* 10^-4| 7. 23*10^-3| Titration3| 40. 80mL| 19. 00mL| . 469| 8. 85* 10^-4| 2. 95* 10^-4| 7. 28*10^-3| Titration4| 40. 10mL| 19. 02mL | . 474| 8. 86* 10^-4| 2. 95* 10^-4| 7. 36*10^-3| From the data in Table 1, the mean and standard deviation was calculated for the molarity of citric acid: Mean molarity of citric acid: 7. 31*10^-3 Standard Deviation: 6. 837*10^-5 In the modern titration, the recorded data is shown for the three trials in the tables below: Table 2: Table 3:Table 4: The data in tables 2-4 was entered separately into three different graphs shown below: Graph 1: Trial 1 Graph 1b: Derivative of graph 1 shown Graph 2: Trail 2 Graph 3: Trial 3 From tables 2-4 and analyzing graphs 1-3, the volume of NaOH used to reach the Equivalence point was calculated. Trial 1: 11. 86mL Trial 2: 11. 28mL Trial 3: 11. 40mL Using the volume of NaOH and the concentration of NaOH (. 0466M) the molarity of NaOH was calculated to four significant figures: Trial 1: 5. 527*10^-4 Trial 2: 5. 257*10^-4 Trial 3: 5. 312*10^-4 Using the stoichiometry of the reaction between citric acid and sodium hydroxide, the moles of citric acid was found to four significant figures: Trial 1: 1. 842*10^-4 Trial 2: 1. 752*10^-4 Trial 3: 1. 771*10^-4 From the moles of citric acid, the molarity was then calculated to four significant figures: Trial 1: 9. 211*10^-3 Trial 2: 8. 761*10^-3 Trial 3: 8. 854*10^-3 The mean and standard deviation were then calculated for the moles of citric acid in the sample of soda used again to four significant figures: Mean: 8. 942*10^-3 Standard Deviation: 2. 376*10^-4

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

Professional Articles Review Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words - 1

Professional Articles Review - Essay Example Journal Of Science Teacher Education, 21(2), 161-179. Doi: 10.1007/s10972-009-9161-8.758540. Mizrap, B. (2013). Teaching science through play in kindergarten: does integrated play and science instruction build understanding? European Early Childhood Education Research Journal. Vol. 21, No. 2, 226–249, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1350293X.2013.789195. The Effects of Kindergarten Experiences on Childrens Elementary Science Achievement educational policymakers struggle to form a curriculum that could help utilize the maximum potential of every child. It is apparent that the policymakers try to understand when and what should be done to enhance the cognitive growth in every child. The article The Effects of Kindergarten Experiences on Children’s Elementary Science Achievement presents answers to these issues obtained through statistical analysis of sample data consisting of 4,490 kindergarten children. The research conducted a quantitative analysis using the idea that there is a powerful connection between early childhood education and children intellectual development (Kumtepe, Kaya & Kumtepe, 2009, p. 978). Similarly, the authors talked about a study of student teachers attitudes that teaches science during preschool teacher education and how that influences them and affects their visions of the teacher’s role and th eir positions in science teaching. Furthermore, the author believes that a teacher’s role and attitudes toward science and science teaching will affect preschool teacher’s behavior and confidence in the training teacher program. In the article ‘‘Science Talks’’ in Kindergarten Classrooms: Improving Classroom Practice Through Collaborative Action Research, this article explores the importance of assimilating science talks in Kindergarten classrooms as a contemporary teaching technique of centralized learning. Sarah, a Kindergarten teacher, demonstrates the importance of science talks in promoting learning of science. Integrating

Saturday, February 1, 2020

The Aurora Shootings Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Aurora Shootings - Essay Example July 20th, 2012 was marked with unbelievable horror, violence and sorrow which will be remembered for a long time due to the loss of lives and the fearful scars it left on the surviving individuals. The screening of the English movie â€Å"The Dark Knight Rises† at one of the movie theaters in Aurora, Colorado, was converted from an exciting and fun-filled event into a deadly massacre spreading fear and panic everywhere. The shooting resulted in the death of 12 and the injury of 58 people in the theater; according to the police reports, nearly every injury was the outcome of gunshots (Pearson 2012). This rampage has been covered by media extensively elaborating each and every detail, number of victims and survivors, aftermaths of the shootings, government actions and emotional stories of the massacre victims and their mourning relatives. James E. Holmes, the suspect of Aurora shootings, entered the movie theater through a rear exit door, armed with a gun and wearing ballistic helmet and protective gear over his body, shot at random in the movie theater. According to the law enforcement agencies, Holmes also threw a tear gas; however, the substance is still under suspicion. Holmes was arrested within first seven minutes of the panic calls from the movie-goers, while the victims were hurriedly sent to the nearby hospitals (Pearson 2012). The Aurora shootings left many questions lingering amongst the people regarding security of movie theaters that how could an armed person enter a theater and many questioning eyes were raised against the gun ownership laws of the United States. On the other hand, reasons that provoked Holmes towards a merciless shooting spree are also being investigated and researched.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

Dvorak :: essays research papers

Dvorak   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Antonin Dvorak was born in Nelahozeves on September 8, 1841. Dvorak was one of the greatest of the Czech composers. He grew up with an appreciation of local folk songs and demonstrated a talent for music at an early age. His first experience with music was of a violinist and violist. He got the attention of Johannes Brahms with his Moravian Duets and soon won a competition in Vienna that he would have never won if it had not been for the insistence of Brahms. Since his patriotic composition, Hymnus, was so popular in 1873, he decided to dedicate himself to composing and teaching music.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Unlike most of the contemporaries, Dvorak was not a pianist/composer. His compositions for the piano are rare. His piano compositions have a quality that makes them both beautiful and powerful. Someone said that they are much like a jewel: they are revered by those who appreciate the beauty of their shape, the smoothly polished surface, and the glow that comes from within.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  As his fame spread throughout Europe, it spread to the United States as well. He was invited in 1892 to the National Conservatory in New York City where he became the artistic director. At the time, he was earning a little less than $500 a month as a professor at the Prague Conservatory. When he took the job at the National Conservatory, he made a salary of $15,000 a year. He served at the Conservatory for three years and wrote some of his best-known music during his time, which includes his Symphony #9 in E minor.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  When in New York City at the Conservatory of Music, Dvorak taught composition three mornings a week and conducted choir and orchestra another three mornings. He encouraged his students to develop their own â€Å"American style†. He also encouraged them to develop the folk songs and â€Å"plantation music† of the South.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Dvorak was nationalistic in his earlier works back home; the New World was a nationalistic composition for America. The time he spent working on the New World made him homesick for his native home; Bohemia. His personal secretary suggested the family go to the tiny Czech community in Iowa, known as Spillville. The village was located on a river and the hills and countryside reminded Dvorak of his native Bohemia. In Spillville, everyone spoke Czech and the Catholic Church had an organ that Dvorak would be able to play.

Wednesday, January 15, 2020

Child Rearing Styles

My research participants were working class parents, one of whom is a 35 year old Indian male which is the same ethnic group as I am (participant 1) and the other a 26 year old White male (participant 2). With regard to the information gathered, both parents have similar parenting styles. Both scored highest for authoritative child-rearing style (32 for participant 1 and 38 for participant 2) and second highest on authoritarian parenting style (with scores of 31 and 35 respectively). Tutorial Letter 101 for PYC4805 (2013) mentions that high scores of these two parenting styles could indicate that these parents follow the authoritative style but may act in accordance with the authoritarian style in certain situations (Tut letter 101 PYC4805). Kendra Cherry of About. com enlightens us on each parenting style; the authoritative style parents establish rules and guidelines for which children are expected to follow. This parenting style is much more democratic. Parents are responsive, nurturing, forgiving rather than punishing as well as willing to listen to their children and supply them with advice and guidance. The authoritarian style explains that there are strict rules which parents implement for their children to follow and failure of abiding by these rules is most likely to result in punishment. Parents of this style generally neglect to explain the reasoning behind these rules. These parents place high demands on their children, but are not responsive to them. Uninvolved parenting styles yielded the lowest scores of 19 and 10 for each participant; this is characterised by few demands, low responsiveness and little communication. The prosocial behaviour scores were again very similar (participant 1 scored 90 and participant 2 scored 87). Participant one's child is a 5 year old boy and has more experience in social settings with other children. He attends school and has 3 siblings of which he is the second child, as well as spending a lot of time with other family members, especially his grandparents; this creates many environments in which to adapt and learn prosocial skills. Dekovic & Janssens (1992) found that a child's acceptance by a peer group plays an important role in his or her social and personality development. Participant two's child is a 2 year old boy, is an only child and does not attend day-care and lacks exposure to social settings involving other children. He spends on average, 70 hours a week with his father and is also at an age where he depends on the care of his parents more. Participant 1 spends an average of 29 hours a week.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Does a Cell-Phone Conversation Affect Reaction Time

Cell phones distract drivers everyday. Cell phones can pull peoples attention away and onto their phone. Cell phones even cause fatal crashes. Studies have shown that cell phones pull a drivers attention away, and onto their phones, causing their reaction time to slow down. In my experiment, I will be testing to see if it is true, that cell phones slow down your reaction time. If cell phones do affect reaction time, then it would show how cell phones do affect us while driving. According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, reaction time is the time required for a subject to initiate a prearranged response to a defined stimulus (Merriam-Webster.com) This shows, reaction time is the time it takes someone to act to a situation. Reaction time is used everyday, for example, when a dodge ball is coming at your face, how quickly you duck is how fast you reacted to the situation. Its helpful to have a fast reaction time, because that means you can react quickly to a situation. According to Merri am-Webster Dictionary, Attention is the act or state of applying the mind to something (Merriam-Webster.com). This involves with reaction time, because your reaction time slows down when the drivers attention is getting pulled away from the thing they are supposed to be focusing on. Having attention with your surroundings while driving is very important, and when youre on phone it pulls your attention away from your surroundings, and distracts you. According toShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Cell Phone Use On Driving Performance And Safety1205 Words   |  5 PagesAneci Persuitti ENGC 1101 SEC 43 December 15, 2014 The Effects of Cell Phone Use on Driving Performance and Safety As technology advances, people are relying on it more and more. Cell phones have literally become a necessity. 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